Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana , is cannabis and cannabinoids that are prescribed by physicians for their patients. The use of cannabis as medicine has not been rigorously tested due to production and governmental restrictions, resulting in limited clinical research to define the safety and efficacy of using cannabis to treat diseases.
Preliminary evidence suggests that cannabis can reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, reduces chronic pain and muscle spasms and treats severe forms of epilepsy.
Short-term use increases the risk of minor and major adverse effects. Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations.Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear. Concerns include memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.
The Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years in many cultures. Some American medical organizations have requested removal of cannabis from the list of Schedule I controlled substances maintained by the United States federal government, followed by regulatory and scientific review. Others oppose its legalization, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Medical cannabis can be administered through various methods, including capsules, lozenges, tinctures, dermal patches, oral or dermal sprays, cannabis edibles, and vaporizing or smoking dried buds.
Synthetic cannabinoids are available for prescription use in some countries, such as dronabinol and nabilone.
Countries that allow the medical use of whole-plant cannabis include Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Portugal, and Uruguay. In the United States, 33 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis for medical purposes, beginning with the passage of California's Proposition 215 in 1996. Although cannabis remains prohibited for any use at the federal level, the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment was enacted in December 2014, limiting the ability of federal law to be enforced in states where medical cannabis has been legalized.
Medical marijuana is a plant-based medicine from the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica species with three major active compounds: THC, CBD, and CBN.
Medical marijuana is used for...
epilepsy (seizure disorders), and other conditions.
The health benefits of medical marijuana include relief from pain and muscle spasm, nausea associated with chemotherapy, and anorexia.Benefits are seen in immune function, neuroplasticity, emotional and mood regulation, vascular health and digestive function.
Research is limited but studies of the endocannabinoid system suggest benefits may include neuroprotection (in MS, epilepsy, other movement disorders), and benefit in a number of mood and anxiety disorders.The side effects of medical marijuana are minimal when used at low doses and include dry mouth and fatigue. At higher doses, side effects include dizziness, paranoia, and psychoactive effects.
What is medical marijuana or medical cannabis?
Medical marijuana is the medical use of the Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant to relieve symptoms of, or treat diseases and conditions. The Cannabis plant was used medically for centuries around the world until the early 1900s. Medical marijuana facts can be difficult to find because strong opinions exist, both pros and cons.Medical uses and emerging research on off-label uses are summarized in this article.
What are THC and CBD?...
THC or tetrahydrocannabinolis the psychoactive compound in marijuana. It is responsible for the "high" people feel.
There are two man-made drugs called dronabinol (Marinol) and nabilone (Cesamet) that are synthetic forms of THC.
They are FDA-approved to prevent nausea and vomiting in people receiving chemotherapy.
CBD or cannabidiol is another compound in marijuana that is not psychoactive.
CBD is thought to be responsible for the majority of the medical benefits.
Epidiolex is a CBD oil extract that is undergoing clinical trials for epilepsy.
THC:CBD: Nabiximols (Sativex) is a specific plant extract with an equal ratio of THC:CBD. It is approved as a drug in the UK and elsewhere in Europe for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, spasticity, neuropathic pain, overactive bladder and other indications.
Medical marijuana products are available with a huge range of THC and CBD concentrations. Expert opinion states that 10mg of THC should be considered "one serving" and a person new to medical marijuana should inhale or consume no more until they know their individual response.
Are there any side effects of medical marijuana?....
Medical marijuana side effects are minimal when used at low doses and include
dry mouth and fatigue.
At higher doses, side effects include dizziness,paranoia, and
psychoactive effects including mood changes and hallucinations.
There are concerns about adverse effects of cannabis among adolescents because the risks are greater to the immature brain and neurological system. Concerns include increased risk of schizophrenia and loss of IQ.
There are public health concerns about the safety of driving under the influence of medical marijuana.
A JAMA study found lower rates of opioid overdose deaths in states with legal medical marijuana.
Is medical marijuana legal?..
At the time this article was written, 23 states have legalized medical marijuana with varying restrictions.
However, it is classified as a Schedule I substance by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA), and thus is illegal at the Federal level.
In most states with legal medicinal marijuana, a prescription, authorization, or medical recommendation is required, and a card or license is issued.
This allows a person to buy medical marijuana.
How do you get medical marijuana?..
In states where medical marijuana is legal, shops, often called dispensaries, sell marijuana products in a variety of forms.
Medical marijuana is available in edible forms (candies or cookies), oils and extracts, and as the plant which can be smoked or otherwise inhaled. Dispensaries require a medical marijuana card before they will sell products.
How people can get a medical marijuana card varies by state.
It requires a prescription from a licensed health-care professional.
Is medical marijuana "addictive?"..
Most research suggests a very low risk of addiction and very low toxicity of medical marijuana when taken as recommended in low therapeutic doses.
There is concern about psychological dependence in heavy users and whether this constitutes marijuana abuse.
Some research has suggested CBD oil might be useful in treatment for marijuana addiction or marijuana abuse.
What research is being done for medical marijuana?..
There are numerous studies underway on medical marijuana, but research is challenged by limited access given the FDA classification.
A search of the National Institutes of Health funded projects list in 2016 revealed 165 studies related to cannabis and 327 studies related to the search term marijuana.
The majority of these studies are surveys into use patterns. Many are also basic science studies investigating how the endocannabinoid system in the brain and immune system works.
Survey studies that anonymously assess users habits and reported benefits may provide insight into the effects of real-world use patterns.
There are over 60 peer-reviewed research studies that have been published about medicinal cannabis. Sixty-eight percent of these studies found benefit while 8% found no benefit. Twenty-three percent of the studies were inconclusive or neutral.
The most promising areas of research appear to be in the use of CBD for neuroprotection.